Apache Parquet is the common denominator for structured data at rest. The data science ecosystem has long appreciated this. But infosec? Why should you care about Parquet when building a threat detection and investigation platform? In this blog post series we share our opinionated view on this question. In the next three blog posts, we
- describe how VAST uses Parquet and its little brother Feather
- benchmark the two formats against each other for typical workloads
- share our experience with all the engineering gotchas we encountered along the way
Why Parquet and Feather?
Parquet is the de-facto standard for storing structured data in a format conducive for analytics. Nearly all analytics engines support reading Parquet files to load a dataset in memory for subsequent analysis.
The data science community has long built on this foundation, but the majority of infosec tooling does not build on an open foundation. Too many products hide their data behind silos, either wrapped behind a SaaS with a thin API, or in a custom format that requires cumbersome ETL pipelines. Nearly all advanced use cases require full access to the data. Especially when the goal is developing realtime threat detection and response systems.
Security is a data problem. But how should we represent that data? This is where Parquet enters the picture. As a vendor-agnostic storage format for structured and nested data, it decouples storage from analytics. This is where SIEM monoliths fail: they offer a single black box that tightly couples data acquisition and processing capabilities. Providing a thin "open" API is not really open, as it prevents high-bandwidth data access that is needed for advanced analytics workloads.
Open storage prevents vendor-lock-in. When any tool can work with the data, you build a sustainable foundation for implementing future use cases. For example, with Parquet's column encryption, you can offload fine-grained compliance use cases to a dedicated application. Want to try out a new analytics engine? Just point it to the Parquet files.
Parquet's Little Brother
Feather is Parquet's little brother. It emerged while building a proof of concept for "fast, language-agnostic data frame storage for Python (pandas) and R." The format is a thin layer on top of Arrow IPC, making it conducive for memory mapping and zero-copy usage. On the spectrum of speed and space-efficiency, think of it this way:
Before Feather existed, VAST had its own storage format that was 95% like Feather, minus a thin framing. (We called it the segment store.)
Wait, but Feather is an in-memory format and Parquet an on-disk format. You cannot compare them! Fair point, but don't forget transparent Zstd compression. For some schemas, we barely notice a difference (e.g., PCAP), whereas for others, Parquet stores boil down to a fraction of their Feather equivalent.
The next blog post goes into these details. For now, we want to stress that Feather is in fact a reasonable format for data at rest, even when looking at space utilization alone.
Parquet and Feather in VAST
VAST can store event data as Parquet or Feather. The unit of storage scaling is a partition. In Arrow terms, a partition is a persisted form of an Arrow Table, i.e., a concatenation of Record Batches. A partition has thus a fixed schema. VAST's store plugin determines how a partition writes its buffered record batches to disk. The diagram below illustrates the architecture:
This architecture makes it easy to point an analytics application directly to the store files, without the need for ETLing it into a dedicated warehouse, such as Spark or Hadoop.
The event data thrown at VAST has quite some variety of schemas. During ingestion, VAST first demultiplexes the heterogeneous stream of events into multiple homogeneous streams, each of which has a unique schema. VAST buffers events until the partition hits a pre-configured event limit (e.g., 1M) or until a timeout occurs (e.g., 60m). Thereafter, VAST writes the partition in one shot and persists it.
The buffering provides optimal freshness of the data, as it enables queries run on not-yet-persisted data. But it also sets an upper bound on the partition size, given that it must fit in memory in its entirety. In the future, we plan to make this freshness trade-off explicit, making it possible to write out larger-than-memory stores incrementally.
Imbuing Domain Semantics
In a past blog we described how VAST uses Arrow's extensible type system to add richer semantics to the data. This is how the value of VAST transcends through the analytics stack. For example, VAST has native IP address types that you can show up in Python as ipaddress instance. This avoids friction in the data exchange process. Nobody wants to spend time converting bytes or strings into the semantic objects that are ultimately need for the analysis.
Here's how VAST's type system looks like:
There exist two major classes of types: basic, stateless types with a static structure and a-priori known representation, and complex, stateful types that carry additional runtime information. We map this type system without information loss to Arrow:
VAST converts enum, address, and subnet types to extension-types. All types are self-describing and part of the record batch meta data. Conversion is bi-directional. Both Parquet and Feather support fully nested structures in this type system. In theory. Our third blog post in this series describes the hurdles we had to overcome to make it work in practice.
In the next blog post, we perform a quantitative analysis of the two formats: how well do they compress the original data? How much space do they take up in memory? How much CPU time do I pay for how much space savings? In the meantime, if you want to learn more about Parquet, take a look at the blog post series from the Arrow team.