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Write a Plugin

Implementing a new plugin requires the following steps:

  1. Setup the scaffolding
  2. Choose a plugin type
  3. Implement the plugin interface
  4. Process configuration options
  5. Compile the source code
  6. Add unit and integration tests
  7. Package it

Next, we'll discuss each step in more detail.

Setup the scaffolding

The scaffolding of a plugin includes the CMake glue that makes it possible to use as static or dynamic plugin.

Pass -DTENZIR_ENABLE_STATIC_PLUGINS:BOOL=ON to cmake to build plugins alongside Tenzir as static plugins. This option is always on for static binary builds.

Tenzir ships with many plugins that showcase what a typical scaffold looks like. Have a look at the the plugins directory, and an example CMakeLists.txt file from the AMQP plugin.

We highly urge calling the provided TenzirRegisterPlugin CMake in your plugin's CMakeLists.txt file instead of handrolling your CMake build scaffolding code. This ensures that your plugin always uses the recommended defaults. Non-static installations of Tenzir contain the TenzirRegisterPlugin.cmake modules.

The typical structure of a plugin directory includes the following files/directories:

  • An overview of the plugin and how to use it.

  • A trail of user-facing changes.

  • schema/: new schemas that ship with this plugin.

  • <plugin>.yaml.example: the configuration knobs of the plugin. We comment out all options by default so that the file serves as reference. Users can uncomment specific settings they would like to adapt.

    The CMake build scaffolding installs all of the above files/directories, if present.

Choose a plugin type

Tenzir offers a variety of customization points, each of which defines its own API by inheriting from the plugin base class tenzir::plugin. When writing a new plugin, you can choose a subset of available types by inheriting from the respective plugin classes.

Dreaded Diamond

To avoid common issues with multiple inheritance, all intermediate plugin classes that inherit from tenzir::plugin use virtual inheritance to avoid issues with the dreaded diamond.

Implement the plugin interface

After having the necessary CMake in place, you can now derive from one or more plugin base classes to define your own plugin. Based on the chosen plugin types, you must override one or more virtual functions with an implementation of your own.

The basic anatomy of a plugin class looks as follows:

class example_plugin final : public virtual component_plugin,
public virtual command_plugin {
/// Loading logic.

/// Teardown logic.
~example_plugin() override;

/// Initializes a plugin with its respective entries from the YAML config
/// file, i.e., `plugin.<NAME>`.
/// @param plugin_config The relevant subsection of the configuration.
/// @param global_config The entire Tenzir configuration for potential access
/// to global options.
caf::error initialize(const record& plugin_config,
const record& global_config) override;

/// Returns the unique name of the plugin.
std::string name() const override;

// TODO: override pure virtual functions from the base classes.
// ...

The plugin constructor should only perform minimal actions to instantiate a well-defined plugin instance. In particular, it should not throw or perform any operations that may potentially fail. For the actual plugin ramp up, please use the initialize function that processes the user configuration. The purpose of the destructor is to free any used resources owned by the plugin.

Each plugin must have a unique name. This returned string should consicely identify the plugin internally.

Please consult the documentation specific to each plugin type above to figure out what virtual function need overriding. In the above example, we have a command_plugin and a component_plugin. This requires implementing the following two interfaces:

component_plugin_actor make_component(
node_actor::stateful_pointer<node_state> node) const override;

std::pair<std::unique_ptr<command>, command::factory>
make_command() const override;

After completing the implementation, you must now register the plugin. For example, to register the example plugin, include the following line after the plugin class definition:

// This line must not be in a namespace.
Registering Type IDs

The example plugin also shows how to register additional type IDs with the actor system configuration, which is a requirement for sending custom types from the plugin between actors. For more information, please refer to the CAF documentation page Configuring Actor Applications: Adding Custom Message Types.

Process configuration options

To configure a plugin at runtime, Tenzir first looks whether the YAML configuration contains a key with the plugin name under the top-level key plugins. Consider our example plugin with the name example:

option: 42

Here, the plugin receives the record {option: 42} at load time. A plugin can process the configuration snippet by overriding the following function of tenzir::plugin:

caf::error initialize(const record& plugin_config,
const record& global_config) override;

Tenzir expects the plugin to be fully operational after calling initialize. Subsequent calls to the implemented customization points must have a well-defined behavior.

Compile the source code

Building alongside Tenzir

When configuring the Tenzir build, you need to tell CMake the path to the plugin source directory. The CMake variable TENZIR_PLUGINS holds a comma-separated list of paths to plugin directories.

To test that Tenzir loads the plugin properly, you can use tenzir --plugins=example version and look into the plugins. A key-value pair with your plugin name and version should exist in the output.

Refer to the plugin loading section of the documentation to find out how to explicitly de-/activate plugins.

Building against an installed Tenzir

It is also possible to build plugins against an installed Tenzir. The TenzirRegisterPlugin CMake function contains the required scaffolding to set up test and integration targets that mimic Tenzir's targets. Here's how you can use it:

# Configure the build. Requires Tenzir to be installed in the CMake Module Path.
cmake -S path/to/plugin -B build
# Optionally you can manually specify a non-standard Tenzir install root:
# TENZIR_DIR=/opt/tenzir cmake -S path/to/plugin -B build
cmake --build build
# Run plugin-specific unit tests.
ctest --test-dir build
# Install to where Tenzir is also installed.
cmake --install build
# Optionally you can manually specify a non-standard Tenzir install root:
# cmake --install build --prefix /opt/tenzir
# Run plugin-specific integration tests against the installed Tenzir.
cmake --build build --target integration

Add unit and integration tests

Tenzir comes with unit and integration tests. So does a robust plugin implementation. We now look at how you can hook into the testing frameworks.

Unit tests

Every plugin ideally comes with unit tests. The TenzirRegisterPlugin CMake function takes an optional TEST_SOURCES argument that creates a test binary <plugin>-test with <plugin> being the plugin name. The test binary links against the tenzir::test target. ou can find the test binary in bin within your build directory.

To execute registered unit tests, you can also simply run the test binary <plugin>-test, where <plugin> is the name of your plugin. The build target test sequentially runs tests for all plugins and Tenzir itself.

Integration tests

Every plugin ideally comes with integration tests as well. Our convention is that integration tests reside in an integration subdirectory. If you add a file called integration/*.bats, Tenzir runs them alongside the regular integration tests.

Note that plugins may affect the overall behavior of Tenzir. Therefore we recommend to to run all integrations regularly by running the build target integration.

To execute plugin-specific integration tests only, run the build target integration-<plugin>, where <plugin> is the name of your plugin.

Package it

If you plan to publish your plugin, you may want to create a GitHub repository. Please let us know if you do so, we can then link to community plugins from the documentation.

Contribute Upstream

If you think your plugin provides key functionality beneficial to all Tenzir users, feel free to submit a pull request to the main repository. But please consider swinging by our community chat or starting a GitHub Discussion to ensure that your contribution becomes a fruitful addition. 🙏